This report summarizes findings from a nationally representative survey of 2,788 adult Americans 18 years and older. The survey was designed by Public Agenda and fielded February 28 to March 3, 2023, by Ipsos. Respondents completed the survey online in English. The survey has a credibility interval of plus or minus 2.3 percentage points for all respondents. Credibility intervals are greater for population subgroups. The sample was randomly drawn from Ipsos’s online panel, partner online panel sources, and “river” sampling. Ipsos calibrates respondent characteristics to be representative of the U.S. population using standard procedures such as raking-ratio adjustments. The source of these population targets is U.S. Census 2019 American Community Survey data. Post-hoc weights were made to the population characteristics on gender, age, race and ethnicity, region, and education. Political affiliation benchmarks are drawn from recent high-quality telephone polls.

In order to develop the survey questions, Public Agenda conducted three demographically diverse online focus groups in November 2022: one with predominantly Republicans, one with predominantly Democrats, and one with people of a variety of political affiliations.

When referencing this report, cite Public Agenda. For a complete methodology and topline with full question wording, email research@publicagenda.org.